Longitudinal changes in the respiratory microbiology of cystic fibrosis is well characterised; Staphylococcus aureus & Haemophilus influenzae are initially isolated before chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation. However there is a paucity of similar microbiological data for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD).
Longitudinal assessment of respiratory microbiology in paediatric PCD patients in a UK specialist centre.
Results of sputum and cough swab microbiology from PCD patients (aged 2.1-19.3 years old, n=17) between January 2003–January 2012, were reviewed. Results were divided into 5-year cohorts corresponding to patient age at time of sample acquisition(table 1).
168/341 (49.1%) cultures were positive. H. influenzae was most prevalent (61/168, 36.3%) followed by S. aureus (32/168, 19%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (27/168, 16%) and P. aeruginosa (16/168, 9.5%). The predominance of H. influenzae continued throughout childhood apart from in 5-10 year olds where there were equivalent numbers of H. influenzae, P aeruginosa, S. aureus & S. pneumoniae (table 1).

Table 1 – Percentage prevalence of bacteria in PCD children in a tertiary follow up clinic in the UK (overall and in age bands)
BacteriaOverall (n=168)Age band in years (samples)
  0-5 yrs (n=28)5-10 yrs (n=67)10-15 yrs (n=47)15-20 yrs (n=26)
H. influenzae3632185554
S. aureus1915222111
S. pneumoniae161124138
P. aeruginosa1071904
M. catarrhalis37500
Fungi and yeast7146015

H. influenzae is the predominant pathogen in our PCD patients throughout childhood, particularly >10 years old. The progression to chronic P. aeruginosa colonization seen in CF is not evident in our PCD population.