European Respiratory Society Monograph, Vol. 58. 2012
Although the global incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is slowly declining, the disease still remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In many regions of the world, including parts of Europe, the high incidence of TB is an indicator of poverty and healthcare inequalities. In countries with a low incidence of TB, the disease is mainly related to risk group; for example, recent close contacts of infected index patients, migrants from high-incidence countries, HIV-infected individuals, and those with other immunodeficiencies and co-morbidities. Targeting these groups in order to prevent TB is particularly important if the ultimate goal of eliminating the disease is to be achieved.