Basic research has started unravelling the biology of gene regulation in response to hypoxia. In addition, the hypoxic stimulus appears to exert different effects according to the way it is delivered (continuous vs. intermittent hypoxia). This new information is very important for clinicians, especially those dealing with respiratory insufficiency and sleep disordered breathing, but also for exercise and high-altitude physiologists. The purpose of this Research Seminar is to fill the gap between basic and clinical science by gathering experts from different research fields (cell biology, exercise, high altitude medicine, clinical respiratory research). A large amount of time will be dedicated to discussion, with special focus on the potential impact of recently described cell mechanisms for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease.