Abstract

To examine the airways in a minimally invasive fashion, bronchoscopy is the most used technique worldwide. Although the first bronchoscopy was a therapeutic one for the removal of a foreign body, until the 1970s the technique was more or less for diagnostic indications [1]. However, in recent years, bronchoscopy has experienced rapid development. More and more interventional techniques have been introduced, offering new options for patients [2]. In the early 2000s, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration was established, and cryoprobes are nowadays the preferred option for establishing the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases [3]. Additionally, various therapeutic techniques for emphysema patients, such as valves, coils, vapour or foam, as well as ablation options for asthma patients (thermoplasty), have shown their efficacy in randomised trials. Furthermore, the potential next options for earlier-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (targeted lung denervation) and chronic bronchitis (spray cryotherapy) are currently undergoing trials [4]. The concept of re-biopsies in advanced lung cancer patients in the case of tumour progression is also more frequently used. Hence, the numbers of bronchoscopy procedures are increasing worldwide.