Introduction: Post intubation tracheal stenosis requires restoration of the lumen by complex surgery of the trachea or endoscopic dilatation with or without insertion of silicone trachea prosthesis (stent). Due to the high recurrence, delivering an anti-proliferative drug from the outer surface of a silicone stent, such as paclitaxel, could reduce or avoid this problem. We aim to analyze the efficacy of gradually delivered paclitaxel loaded nanoparticles to inhibit the proliferation of human respiratory cells as a first step to use this drug as a coating for the stents. Methods: Primary respiratory cells from patients with tracheal stenosis were cultured with biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel. Non-loaded nanoparticles were used as control. In parallel, cells were incubated in a silicone substrate with or without immobilized paclitaxel nanoparticles. To test the viability, MTT assay was performed at 1, 6, 10 and 14 days. Results: We observed a clear inhibitory effect of paclitaxel when delivered by nanoparticles compared to pure paclitaxel in all cell cultures. Paclitaxel loaded nanoparticles shown a controlled drug release during the time-course of the experiments. Furthermore, non-loaded nanoparticles did not affect the viability of cells. Conclusions: Drug loaded nanoparticles shown a controlled release of paclitaxel causing a significant cell death in a similar behavior of pure paclitaxel. Additionally, non-loaded nanoparticles confirm the biocompatibility of the polymeric material. This is a first approach to use nanoparticles loaded paclitaxel as a coating surface in tracheobronchial silicone stents due to its efficacy of avoiding cells growth.