Abstract
Background: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) and cardiac diseases are mutually aggravating conditions. There is a surge of interest in the association of major cardiac diseases and CAP and this study was done to contribute to the world‘s literature from the Indian sub-continent.
Materials and methods: In this retrospective analysis of patients admitted with CAP between January 2011 and January 2012 at a tertiary care referral centre we looked for associated cardiac diseases.
Results: Of the total patients included in the analysis (n=73), 34.24% (25) had an associated cardiac disease. There were 45 instances of cardiac problems. 19.17% (14) had pulmonary hypertension, 16.44% (12) had CCF/Acute LVF, 13.69% (10) had Ischemic heart disease, 4.1% (3) had Rheumatic heart diseases, 2.74% (2) had arrhythmias and there was 1 instance each of Infective endocarditis, acute pulmonary thromboembolism, congenital heart disease and MI (1.36%). 14 (56%) out of 25 patients who had cardiac diseases required ICU care while 9 (18.75%) out of 48 patients who did not have cardiac conditions required ICU care(p=0.001). 6 out of 25 patients had new onset cardiac problems. Two patients in the cardiac disease group died, while in the non cardiac disease group, one patient died.
Conclusions: There is a high degree of correlation between pre existing cardiac disease and CAP as also between CAP and new onset cardiac diseases especially CAD.
The cardiac disease in such patients adversely influences the outcome of the pneumonia.
A careful search for pre existing cardiac disease should be made in patients who present CAP.
Patients with identified heart disease should prophylactically receive vaccines to reduce the incidence of CAP.